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Albert Einstein Biography

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Bio Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein's Bio

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on 14 March 14, 1879. His father, Hermann, was a salesman and engineer, his mother, Pauline, was a housewife. The family moved to Munich a year later, where his father and uncle founded a company that manufactured electrical equipment.
Although Einstein’s parents were Jewish, they were non-practicing, and he went to a Catholic elementary school from age five to ten. At this time, Albert did well in school, although he did have some speech difficulties. When he was 10, a family friend introduced him to science, math and philosophy textbooks.
After his electrical manufacturing business failed, Hermann Einstein moved his family to Italy in search of work, while Albert remained behind in Munich, going to school. He disliked his school, however, and in 1895, at the age of 16, he left school to join his family in Italy.
Einstein eventually completed school in Switzerland. After graduating, he renounced his citizenship in order to avoid military service, and in 1896 enrolled in the Polytechnic in Zurich to study math and physics. He graduated in 1900, at the age of 21.

After graduating, Einstein went to work in a patent office in Bern, Switzerland while he tried to find work as a teacher. He continued to work toward his doctorate degree, however, and write scientific papers.

In early 1902, Einstein and his girlfriend, Mileva Maric, had a daughter they named Lieserl. It is believed she died young, although records are sketchy. Einstein and Maric married in 1903, and would go on to have two more children.
In 1905, Einstein received his doctorate from the University of Zurich. In addition, he published four groundbreaking papers, on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of matter and energy. His paper on special relativity in particular would bring him both fame and notoriety.
In 1906, Einstein became a physics professor at the University of Zurich. In 1911, he became a full professor at Karl-Ferdinand University in Prague in 1911.
In 1912, Einstein began a relationship with Elsa Löwenthal, and shortly afterwards separated from his wife. In 1914, he was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics and professor at the University of Berlin, and returned to Germany.

Einstein and Maric divorced in 1919. A few months afterwards, he married Else Löwenthal. Einstein was 40 years old.

Einstein continued to do theoretical work with his colleagues, and in 1921, he was awarded the Novel Prize, but for his paper on photoelectrics, not for special relativity.

In 1933, when Einstein was 54, he and his second wife emigrated to the United States. He was forced to do this when Adolf Hitler came to power, and the Nazis made life untenable for the Jews. Indeed, many Jewish scientists were forced out of Germany at that time, or later on as Germany extended its influence to surrounding countries.

It was these scientists who helped the United States develop the atomic bomb before Germany did, and in essence helped win World War II.

Einstein went to work for the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey, and continued to influence scientific thought as he worked to develop a Unified Field Theory.

In 1936, Einstein’s wife Elsa had died of complications from heart and kidney disease. He never remarried. In 1940, he became a United States citizen.
After the war, Einstein campaigned for civil rights, and expressed support for the new state of Israel, although he declined the offer to become its second president, stating that he had “neither the natural ability nor the experience to deal with human beings.”

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Albert Einstein Biography

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