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Muhammad Bio

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Mohammad's Biography

Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah(May almighty Allah's Grace and Peace Be Upon Him), most commonly referred to simply as Muhammad (as well as Muhammed or Mohammed), was born in Mecca about 570 AD. Most of the details of his early life are sketchy.

Mecca was a large city located on the Arabian peninsula, inhabited by people divided into tribes. Muhammad was born into the powerful Bani Hashem tribe. His father died from between two to six months before he was born, his mother died when he was only four, and his paternal grandfather when he was eight. He was then brought up in the household of his uncle Abu Talib.

Little is known of Muhammed’s life as a young man. As a child he had worked as a shepherd, as was typical of young boys of the time. His uncle was a merchant, and so he became a merchant for a time when he went into his uncle’s household.

At age 25, in 595, he was married an older woman, Khadija, who had previously employed him as her agent in trade. They would go on to have two sons and four daughters.

Muhammad periodically retreated to a cave in the nearby Mount Hira, just outside Mecca, to meditate. At age 40, in the month of Ramadan, while he was on one of his retreats, he received his first revelation from God, brought by the angel Gabriel. He was called upon “to be God’s messenger, to make known God’s will to the whole of humanity, and to show the way to human dignity, progress and real happiness.”

For the next several years, the angel Gabriel continued to appear to Muhammad, delivering more of the sacred word of God. (After 23 years, the Koran was complete.)

Three years after founding Islam, Muhammad started preaching these revelations, which he called Islam (surrender). Mohammed preached that “God is one” and people must surrender to him.

Only a few people followed Mohammed during the early years of his ministry. Most of the tribes in the area rejected him – they had their own gods and their own idols. But Muhammad persevered.

Both Muhammad's wife and his uncle died in 619. When his uncle died, leadership of his clan was given to Abu Lahab, a man who had long been Muhammed’s enemy. Abu Lahab removed the protection of his clan from Muhammad, causing him to flee Mecca.

Muhammad took the followers he did have and, in 622, established a settlement at what is now Medina. This migration is called the Hijra.

After eight years of preaching at Medina, and of warfare between the tribes there, Muhammad and his followers converted the various tribes of Medina to Islam, united them into an army, returned to Mecca and conquered it.
Soon afterwards, a confederate of tribes who had been enemies of the Meccans, advanced on the city, with an army twice the size of Muhammad’s. Muhammad defeated these tribes in the Battle of Hunayn.

After this, Muhammad led an expedition against northern Arabia. Many local chiefs submitted to Islam, and as the years went on, more tribal leaders and Bedouin submitted to the new religion. Indeed, by the time Mohammed died, most of the Arabian peninsula had been converted to Islam.

After making a pilgrimage to Mecca – his first to the city of his birth after its people had been converted to Islam, Muhammad had a stroke probably. He died on Monday, June 8, 632, in Medina, at the age of 63. After the death of Khadija, Muhammad had married several more women – ultimately having seven wives (common at the time).

After Muhammad’s death, there was controversy over who would succeed him as leader of Islam. Many prominent friends of Muhammad wanted Abu Bakr, who was made the first caliph. However, this choice was contested by others, who believed that Muhammad had designated his cousin and son-in-la, Ali ibn Abi Talib, as his successor.

See also: Religious Leaders, Famous Muslims, Muslim Quotes, Quotes About Muhammad, Muhammad Quotes
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Holy Prophet Muhammed Biography

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